Food historians confirm the European practice of topping baked goods most notably pie and cake with rich cream sauce, whipped dates to Renaissance times. Historic cookbooks offer several examples; none of which are titled "a la mode.
Poland became a unified kingdom in the first half of the 10th century, and officially adopted Catholicism in The fragmentation and loss of central authority could not have come at a worse time, with the Mongol Empire invading and wreaking havoc on the realm repeatedly in, and lastly between Following its reunification, Poland experienced its golden age from the 14th till the 16th century, under the reigns of King Casimir III the Great and the monarchs of the Jagiellonian dynasty, whose rule extended from the Baltic to the Black and Adriatic seas.
After uniting with Lithuania inthe Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth became the largest country in Europe.
Under the rule of the Vasa dynasty, the capital moved to Warsaw in Responding to these partitions and a drastic need for political reform, Poland became the first country in Europe and the second in the world after the United States to pass a written constitution ina highly progressive and strong document for its time.
Despite the constitution, the commonwealth ceased to exist afterwith its lands annexed by the three competing imperial powers.
The following period of foreign domination was met with fierce resistance. During the Napoleonic Wars, a French-backed semi-autonomous Duchy of Warsaw arose, before being erased from the map in Further uprisings ensued, including the 29 November uprising of in Russian Polandthe Revolution in Austrian and Prussian Polandand the January Uprising between also in Russian Poland.
Throughout the occupation, Poles retained their sense of national identity and defied the three occupying powers with armed struggle or passive resistance. Warsaw in the s.
Poland returned to the European map at the end of World War I, Various kinds of liqueurs and their a declaration of independence from the defeated German and Austro-Hungarian empires on 11 November From their ashes, the infant Second Polish Republic quickly became embroiled in violent territorial disputes with other new post-war states, including Czechoslovakia to the south, and revolutionary Soviet Russia to the east, which it fought a bloody war against between to retain independence.
All of these factors placed Poland in a precarious position of having potential enemies facing her from all sides. This was followed by an eastern invasion by the Soviet Union on 17 September. Only a few days prior to the invasion, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany had signed the secret Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact of non-aggression, which called for the re-division of central and eastern Europe between the two powers.
The blitzkrieg from all sides forced the collapse of the Second Republic, although Poland never conditionally surrendered, with its government-in-exile continuing the war effort from abroad.
All six of the German Nazi extermination camps were located in Poland; of these Auschwitz is the most well known site. Much of the Jewish resistance to the Nazis also occurred in Poland, the most famous example being the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in In addition to Jews, Poles were vigorously persecuted by the Nazis, with 2 to 3 million murdered during the occupation.
Countless Polish civilians were ruthlessly rounded up, tortured, placed in concentration camps, and executed. Poland was treated much more severely than other countries occupied by Nazi Germany. Any Poles discovered hiding Jews risked being executed with their entire families and yet many helped anyway, as documented in lists such as The Righteous Among the Nations.
Throughout the occupation, resistance to the Nazis remained strong, with the Home Army Armia Krajowa conducting guerrilla warfare against the Germans, as well as staging a mass uprising in Warsaw in About 22, Polish military and political leaders, business owners, and intelligentsia were murdered, officially approved by the Soviet Politburo, including Stalin and Beria.
Most major cities were destroyed, and with them the history of centuries was gone. To this day, this event is viewed by many Poles as an act of betrayal by the Allies, as many Polish soldiers, seamen, and airmen had fought alongside the British and Americans in the European theatre.
The native Polish population from the former eastern provinces were relocated to the west, while ethnic Germans in the new western provinces were expelled. This resulted in the forced uprooting of over 10 million people, and until recently, had overshadowed attempts at Polish-German reconciliation.
BetweenStalinist leaders conducted periodic purges of the governing Communist Party. Strong economic growth in the post-war period alternated with serious recessions in, andresulting in labour turmoil over dramatic inflation, as well as massive goods shortages.
A brief reprieve in this period occurred in The communists responded by organizing a military junta, led by General Wojciech Jaruzelski as prime minister, who imposed martial law in December Lasting until Julythis crackdown period witnessed tens of thousands of people being detained.
Martial law reached into all facets of life: Solidarity members were particularly targeted with imprisonment or unemployment, a serious charge in the socialist world. Atop draconian military measures to stop political dissent, the Polish economy entered free fall. Despite the government crackdown, dissent against the regime only grew more emboldened.
This internecine political conflict and its ensuing economic disaster greatly weakened the prestige and rule of the Communist Party. Facing international isolation, the government legalized Solidarity, entered into negotiations with dissidents, and soon held partially-free elections inin which the communists were finally removed from power.
The election was the start of a domino effect of peaceful, anti-communist revolutions across the Eastern Bloc throughout that year.This would be equivalent to a whisky bar with 30 different types of liquor on the shelves.
You could be drinking rye, bourbon, or scotch and still be drinking whisky, all made from some type of grain. In many parts of the United States, the copperleaf is a popular summertime landscaping element, a heat-loving annual bedding plant that disintegrates with the onset of winter conditions.
This type of liquor is first distilled two to three times, and then it is aged in large oak barrels to improve its torosgazete.com of the renowned whisky beverages include the Scotch Single-malts such as Laphroaig, Irish blends like Jameson and the American bourbons like Jack Daniels.
In a nutshell the above are main types of liquor in the world. It is a cream based liqueur, similar to an Irish cream, but with a significant difference of being made with tequila instead of whiskey. " Tequila Cream is loaded with bold coffee latte, caramel & wild flower honey aromas which follow through to cocoa, latte and agave flavors.
For the sake of the environment, it’s important to know the different types of plastic and their uses, as well as the resin identification codes found on each.
Recycling Codes for Plastic Understanding the different types of plastic can help consumers like you make more informed decisions related to your health and the environment. Oct 17, · Over the years, adventurous mixologists have put their own spin on this classic beverage, taking it from standard style to individual preference.
Drinks given this name can now be found made with vodka, flavored liqueurs, fruit juices, and other additions.