Animal research has had a vital role in many scientific and medical advances of the past century and continues to aid our understanding of various diseases. Throughout the world, people enjoy a better quality of life because of these advances, and the subsequent development of new medicines and treatments—all made possible by animal research.
Websites The ethics of animal research Animal use has been a hotly contested moral issue for hundreds of years. This was rejected by Jeremy Bentham in the 18th Century who extended his utilitarian conception of rights to animals due to their capability to suffer.
This was expanded by Peter Singer, inwho wrote in Animal Liberation that arbitrarily treating humans above animals — particularly in marginal cases where animals may be as intelligent as young children or severely cognitively-impaired adults — was not justified.
Animal rights philosophy is distinct from proponents of animal welfare who argue that we must provide adequate conditions for animals in our care — a position held by the RSPCA among others.
The scientific community has often been the driving force for these improvements, arguing that better conditions for animals was conducive to better, more replicable, scientific results.
Books Animal Liberation Peter Singer was an immensely influential book which discussed the ethics of animal use including animal research. It is often considered the forerunner to the animal liberation movement.
Do Animals Have Rights? Alison Hills is an objective assessment of the case for whether animals should have rights and what rights those should be.
Hills discusses their ability of mind, whether all animals should be regarded as equal, and what that means. Hills concludes with a graded scale of animals rights. The Case for Animal Rights Tom Reagan is another major piece of philosophical writing which argues for animal rights on the basis of their similar cognitive abilities.
The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press.
It is a useful book covering many issues of animal rights activism and philosophy. In Chapter 18, Smith creates his argument in favour of animal research on the basis of human rights and duties. The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice Beauchamp et al.
Through 16 case studies, and plenty of ethical theory, the authors attempt to navigate the moral minefields involved. Case Studies in Ethical Choice. An Odyssey with Animals Adrian Morrison investigates the relationship between humans and animals, and explains why efforts to halt animal research would be damaging to human health.
An Odyssey with Animals. Oxford University Press Online resources Ethics Pro-Test looks at the question of whether animals have rights, concluding that their lack of understanding does not allow them to participate in the system of rights and duties.
Although it looks at the whole issue, it pays particular attention to the ethics, specifically in chapter three. The ethics of research involving animals. Nuffield Council on Bioethics.
It also has a useful and extensive references list. The Ethics of Animal Research. Ringach discusses the arguments made by animal rights activists about marginal cases — how do we compare the moral value of a baby, or brain damaged person to a mouse or monkey.
The moral relevance of human intelligence.The ethics of animal research. Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research It is an unrealistic hope—and a false claim—that microdosing can completely replace the use of animals in scientific research; “animal studies will still be required,” confirmed the Fund for the Replacement of () The Ethics of Research.
Links to TOK: Ethics. There are two key positions on the use of animals in research. The utilitarian argument takes the position that if the experimentation results in a greater good, then it was appropriate.
This argument also supports the condition that if research can be in any other way and yield the same results, then animals should not be used. OVERVIEW This module urges students to think about how we use animals in our everyday lives and in biomedical research, and to evaluate philo-sophical and ethical issues surrounding animal.
The ethics of research involving animals. Nuffield Council on Bioethics Professor Sir Bob Hepple QC, FBA (co-opted member of the Council for the period of chairing the Working Party on the ethics of violent action against those conducting animal research in the UK have brought the matter to the forefront of public attention.
Animal rights advocates are pressing government agencies to impose heavy restrictions on animal research. But this growing criticism of painful experimentation on animals is matched by a growing concern over the threat restrictions on the use of animals would pose to scientific progress.
To safeguard responsible research with animals, other than humans, and to establish and maintain cooperative relations with organizations sharing common interests.
To disseminate in cooperation with other organizations accurate information about such research. To review the ethics of such research.