Thus his theory is generally called a psychosocial theory of personality development. According to him, the stages are universal, and the ages at which one is said to have passed from one to another stage are also fairly universal. However, it must be kept in mind that Erikson did not have much knowledge of cultures and societies other than his own, and thus the universality of his theory can and must be questioned.
Is it okay to have been me? Reflection on life Hope: Mistrust oral-sensory, Infancy, under 2 years [ edit ] Existential Question: Can I Trust the World?
If caregivers are consistent sources of food, comfort, and affection, an infant learns trust — that others are dependable and reliable. If they are neglectful, or perhaps even abusive, the infant instead learns mistrust — that the world is an undependable, unpredictable, and possibly a dangerous place.
While negative, having some experience with mistrust allows the infant to gain an understanding of what constitutes dangerous situations later in life; yet being at the stage of infant or toddler, it is a good idea not to put them in prolonged situations of mistrust: Is It Okay to Be Me?
As the child gains control over eliminative functions and motor abilitiesthey begin to explore their surroundings. Parents still provide a strong base of security from which the child can venture out to assert their will.
Children at this age like to explore the world around them and they are constantly learning about their environment. Caution must be taken at this age while children may explore things that are dangerous to their health and safety.
At this age children develop their first interests. For example, a child who enjoys music may like to play with the radio. Children who enjoy the outdoors may be interested in animals and plants.
Highly restrictive parents, however, are more likely to instill in the child a sense of doubt, and reluctance to attempt new challenges.
As they gain increased muscular coordination and mobility, toddlers become capable of satisfying some of their own needs. They begin to feed themselves, wash and dress themselves, and use the bathroom.
If caregivers encourage self-sufficient behavior, toddlers develop a sense of autonomy—a sense of being able to handle many problems on their own. But if caregivers demand too much too soon, or refuse to let children perform tasks of which they are capable, or ridicule early attempts at self-sufficiency, children may instead develop shame and doubt about their ability to handle problems.
Guilt locomotor-genital, Early Childhood, 5—8 years [ edit ] Existential Question: Initiative adds to autonomy the quality of planning, undertaking and attacking a task for the sake of just being active and on the move.
The child is learning to master the world around them, learning basic skills and principles of physics. Things fall down, not up. They learn how to zip and tie, count and speak with ease.
At this stage, the child wants to begin and complete their own actions for a purpose. Guilt is a confusing new emotion. They may feel guilty over things that logically should not cause guilt.
They may feel guilt when this initiative does not produce desired results. The development of courage and independence are what set preschoolers, ages three to six years of age, apart from other age groups. Young children in this category face the challenge of initiative versus guilt.
As described in Bee and Boyd the child during this stage faces the complexities of planning and developing a sense of judgment. During this stage, the child learns to take initiative and prepare for leadership and goal achievement roles.
Activities sought out by a child in this stage may include risk-taking behaviors, such as crossing a street alone or riding a bike without a helmet; both these examples involve self-limits. Within instances requiring initiative, the child may also develop negative behaviors.
These negative behaviors are a result of the child developing a sense of frustration for not being able to achieve a goal as planned and may engage in negative behaviors that seem aggressive, ruthless, and overly assertive to parents. Aggressive behaviors, such as throwing objects, hitting, or yelling, are examples of observable behaviors during this stage.
Preschoolers are increasingly able to accomplish tasks on their own, and can start new things. With this growing independence comes many choices about activities to be pursued.
But if, instead, adults discourage the pursuit of independent activities or dismiss them as silly and bothersome, children develop guilt about their needs and desires.
Inferiority latency, Middle Childhood, years [ edit ] Existential Question: The aim to bring a productive situation to completion gradually supersedes the whims and wishes of play.This page presents an overview of the developmental tasks involved in the social and emotional development of children and teenagers which continues into adulthood.
The presentation is based on the Eight Stages of Development developed by the psychiatrist, Erik Erikson in According to Erikson. Erik Erikson (15 June – 12 May ) was a Danish-German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings.
He used Freud's work as a starting place to develop a theory about human stage development from birth to death. Unlike Freud’s theory.
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Human Development - Applied and Made Easy for Parents Erik Erikson ( ) was a German-born American psychoanalyst; he was known for his psychosocial theory of emotional development of human beings.
This theory looks at the impact of parents and society on personality development from . Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development extracted from Wikipedia and presented in tabular form by Parenting the Next Generation.
Jul 20, · The theory proposed by Piaget focuses on the various stages of a child where transition from one stage to the other follows a sequence. He developed the stages with key ideas as .
Developmental psychologist Erik H. Erikson () was best known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis..
The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood.