Promoting behavioral success in schools: Commentary on exemplary practices The articles in this special Practitioner's Edition of Psychology in the Schools share the application of sound educational and behavioral practices in real school and classroom contexts. Given this emphasis in these articles on the applied use of behavioral practices, the purpose of this brief commentary is to highlight and comment on some of the big ideas that link these practitioner-focused articles. Specifically, three main questions are addressed:
Uses and Effects of mass media Chapter 2 focused on the various theories of communication and the effects that the tools of media have on the audiences.
This chapter will focus on the several types of communication classified on the basis of the social group in which it takes place and upon the technical tools used for its facilitation.
The various types are: Intrapersonal Communication Intrapersonal communication is one-way communication. Individual contemplation, internal reflection, prayers, etc. This type can also be termed as a form of internal persuasion. There are two types of messages, nonverbal and verbal.
Examples of nonverbal communication are facial expressions, posture, gestures, tone of voice, touching, spacing and systematic use of time. Verbal communication can be divided into three disciplines; syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics.
In the persuasion context, one person is attempting to induce change in the belief, attitude, or behavior in one other person. In the persuasion context, there are various theories that explain internal communication Balance Theory This theory advocated by Fritz Heider and Theodore Newcomb in states that when tensions arise between or inside people, they attempt to reduce these tensions through self-persuasion or trying to persuade others.
Balance theory proposes that there are three ways in which a person can feel balance. First the source and receiver can both dislike as well as like each other, so they experience comfort and balance. Second, the source and receiver can have a positive attitude toward an object or idea and display positive feelings toward one another, therefore experiencing comfort and balance.
Third, the source and the receiver can disagree about an idea or object and also dislike each other, therefore experiencing comfort because they know that they disagree about the values of certain objects or ideas. Mary likes to do things in a planned, orderly manner and Joe does not like orderliness in everything.
Yet Mary likes Adam, and values their relationship therefore this system is now in imbalance. If Mary would change her attitude about orderliness in everything, this system would be in balance. Cognitive Dissonance Theory This theory propagated by Leon Festinger in says that human beings often have conflicting beliefs with actions they take, or other beliefs they have.
This dissonance creates a tension and tension reduction is automatically sought by changing our evaluations by some degree. Cognitive Dissonance is when you have two good choices and you make your decision then you find yourself unsure or in doubt about the choice you made.
The theory of Cognitive Dissonance implies that when there is tension we change a belief or an action. Many times selective exposure is used which prevents dissonance. This theory also implies that we experience more dissonance when the issue is more important, when we put off a decision and the decision is permanent.
When marketers want to persuade their audience to buy a product they must convince them that this is a good action and if their beliefs do not match this action, they must persuade them to change their beliefs.
For instance if a health drink is introduced in the market, and some consumers feel that it is really not essential that they switch over to the new product from their usual cereal, the advertisers will have to focus on the fact the health drink contains health benefits such as cholesterol fighting, fat reducing ingredients that their usual cereal lacks.
McCornack propounded this theory in X has an important school project due Wednesday. His professor does not accept late papers. Monday night he went to the soccer match and didn't start on the paper.
Tuesday night he browsed the net for information related to the project and managed to almost finish the project. Wednesday morning, X overslept and arrived only after class was over. He goes to see his professor immediately after. How will he answer his professor on why he wasn't in class to turn in his paper?
My paper was already finished, I just overslept". The Inoculation Theory by William McGuire states that inoculation is used to describe the attribution of greater resistance to individuals or the process of supplying information to receivers before the communication process takes place in the hope that the information would make the receiver more resistant.
This theory stresses on the importance of the nature of the presentation of the message.
One method involves passive reading in which receivers read the defensive material.Military Decision Making Process - In the view of global security,() The military decision making process abbreviated as MDMP is a planning model that establishes procedures for analyzing a mission, developing and comparing courses of action(COA) that are best suited to accomplish the higher commander’s intention and mission.
Chapter 3: Uses and Effects of mass media. Chapter 2 focused on the various theories of communication and the effects that the tools of media have on the audiences.
Methods. This was a mixed-method study involving a conceptual analysis of National Health Service escalation policies (n=12) and associated escalation actions (n=92), as well as a detailed ethnographic study of escalation in situ during a month period in a large UK ED (n=30 observations).
Combining Creativity with Critical Thinking. Creative Thinking is extremely useful — and it's fun! — but it always should be combined with Critical Thinking.*Why? During productive PROBLEM SOLVING you creatively Generate Ideas and critically Evaluate Ideas.
Usually, creative generation is the most exciting part of creative-and-critical (creatical?). Adapted from Clark () and Seagoe () Lack of understanding by parents, educators, and health professionals, combined with the problem situations (e.g., lack of appropriately differentiated education) leads to interpersonal problems which are then mis-labeled, and thus prompt the mis-diagnoses.
Introduction. Caught off guard and "numb" from the impact of a critical incident, individuals and communities are often ill-equipped to handle the chaos of .
|Section 2 - Problems in and Commonalities Across Previous Definitions of Executive Functioning||Promoting behavioral success in schools:|
|Situation awareness - Wikipedia||Are humans the only creatures on earth that communicate? What purpose does communication serve in our lives?|
|Sign Up to Newsletter||It is no accident that the MEBC presents a platform on which corporate conscience is indelibly imprinted. By focusing on the five characteristics of an ethical business culture, organisations have specific directions to take in building and sustaining their corporate culture based on ethical principles and metrics to measure progress.|