In educational institutions, research papers are often checked with anti-plagiarism software, and students are expected to follow specific style guidelines given by the instructor. In some college liberal arts courses, professors require proper usage of the Modern Language Association, or MLA, style. MLA offers formatting, citation and style guidelines to help students and professionals write clear, well-organized and properly referenced works.
Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal.
That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature. A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information.
Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there.
Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles. The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble.
For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon.
If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblickin Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e. Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e.
Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:This section contains resources on in-text citation and the Works Cited page, as well as MLA sample papers, slide presentations, and the MLA classroom poster Chicago Manual of Style This section contains information on the Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation.
The example is when you might be reading a certain paper, and the authors refer to another paper. You can't get that other paper as it's unpublished, or it's in a language that you can't read, or m. It's important to cite sources you used in your research for several reasons: To show your reader you've done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information Citing a source means that you show, within the body of your text, that you took words, ideas, figures, images, etc.
There are many different ways to cite research sources. This method - parenthetical citation - is currently most in favor. Start with nothing in your bibliography, and build it based on your parenthetical citations.
Aug 29, · How to Cite a Research Paper. When writing a paper for a research project, you may need to cite a research paper you used as a reference.
The basic information included in your citation will be the same across all styles.
However, the 67%(3). A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings.
It can be either a term paper, a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation.