Any suggestions for secret societies set in this world? McKenzie on 08 Mar at 9: At the very least, whatever information they share should be earned by the main character and distributed in pieces.
References provide support for statements and add credibility to writing. The rules for what needs a citation are an academic tradition, but are rarely stated explicitly: All direct quotations from another author must be cited. The writer has no discretion in books technical writing and design matter: It is highly recommended that authors always include the indicia of a quotation [i.
It is not an acceptable defense to plagiarism to claim that the author forgot to include the indicia of a quotation. All substantial information taken from another source should be cited. There are four reasons for this: The meaning of "substantial information" in 2 is deduced on a case-by-case basis by considering the four reasons.
If at least one of the reasons is appropriate or desirable, then a reference should be used. However, one does not give a reference for well-known facts e.
The appropriate test is whether any person with an undergraduate education in the appropriate specialty would immediately recognize the fact: Let us take a moment to expand on item 2b above. If the writer doubts the truth of the information, then the writer should indicate to the reader the basis for those doubts.
This can be accomplished diplomatically by making a "on the one hand Doubts can also be raised and at least partly resolved by discussing alternative interpretations.
The point is that the writer can not just serve the reader some cited material and then walk away from the mess: If a complete resolution of the facts is not possible, then the writer has an obligation to say so. Some types of statements beg for a citation. For example, It is commonly believed that It is widely known that The conventional wisdom is that These assertions need a citation of at least one I prefer three references that support the assertion.
These references may be to textbooks, which are rarely cited in professional literature in other contexts. There are two reasons for requiring a reference to this type of statement: What kind of literature should be referenced?
It is preferred that all references be archival material: There is one test for "archival": Is it retained permanently by many major technical libraries?
In general, any paper that is listed in standard databases e. In addition, patents and government reports qualify as archival materials, although they are often not considered scholarly materials. Engineering standards, although they are important, are not archival: It is almost impossible to locate a copy of an obsolete or withdrawn standard, unless one knows an old engineer who has a copy in the filing cabinet!
For these reasons, standards are not archival documents.
However, if one needs to cite to conventional good engineering practice or to cite to a performance specification, then one can cite engineering standards.
These materials are of an ephemeral nature and definitely not archival: A trade magazine is a periodical that is characterized by an abundance of 1 advertisements and 2 articles written by a employee of manufacturer X about a specific product of manufacturer X. Such material is commonly not objective, and is often blatantly self-serving.
Trade magazines are often distributed free to readers who are engaged in purchasing and specifying the products that are described in the magazine. Trade magazines are distinguished from a journal that is published by a professional society. Journals usually have two or three recognized experts review each prospective article for accuracy a process called "peer review" before the article is published, while trade magazines publish anything that the editor wishes.Read technical books.
One of the best ways to improve your technical skills is by reading books. As a teenager I used to buy computer books at the local bookstore. In fact, writing those articles, which gradually became less technical and more motivational, contributed to my career switch from software development to personal.
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Dr. Kristi Siegel Associate Professor and Chair English Department and Languages, Literature, and Communications Division The Professional as Writer - Technical Writing for Interior Design Review: Writing and Editing; College Composition - Fall ; Literature and the Workplace Books.
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