Rote learning Memorization is the process of committing something to memory. The act of memorization is often a deliberate mental process undertaken in order to store in memory for later recall items such as experiences, names, appointments, addresses, telephone numbers, lists, stories, poems, pictures, maps, diagrams, facts, music or other visual, auditory, or tactical information. Memorization may also refer to the process of storing particular data into the memory of a device. One of the most basic approaches to learning any information is simply to repeat it by rote.
General Academic Students who are confrontational or non-compliant frequently have poor academic skills, a low sense of self-efficacy as learners, and a very negative attitude toward school Sprick, et al.
Misbehavior often stems from academic deficits. Educators who work with these behaviorally challenging learners, however, often make the mistake of overlooking simple academic strategies that have been shown to shape student behavior in powerful and positive ways Penno et al.
Here are ten research-based ideas on academic management that no teacher of difficult-to-manage students should be without!
Be sure that assigned work is not too easy and not too difficult. When assignments are too simple, the student may become bored and distracted.
When work is too hard, the student is likely to feel frustrated and upset because he or she cannot complete the assignment. As a significant mismatch between the assignment and the student's abilities can trigger misbehavior, teachers should inventory each student's academic skills and adjust assignments as needed to ensure that the student is appropriately challenged but not overwhelmed by the work.
Offer frequent opportunities for choice. Teachers who allow students a degree of choice in structuring their learning activities typically have fewer behavior problems in their classrooms than teachers who do not. Providing choices gives students a sense of autonomy and voice in their learning.
It should also be remembered that no teacher could possibly anticipate each student's idiosyncratic learning needs in every situation. If students are offered choice in structuring their academic activities, however, they will frequently select those options that make their learning easier and more manageable.
In sum, students who exercise academic choice are more likely to be active, motivated managers of their own learning and less likely to simply act out due to frustration or boredom.
As an example of choice at the group level, an instructor may let the entire class vote on which of two lessons they would prefer to have presented that day.
Choice can be incorporated into individual assignments too. In independent seatwork, for example, a student might be allowed to choose which of several short assignments to do first, the books or other research materials to be used, the response format e. One efficient way to promote choice in the classroom is for the teacher to create a master menu of options that students can select from in various learning situations.
An instructor, for example, may teach the class that during any independent assignment, students will always have a chance to 1 choose from at least 2 assignment options, 2 sit where they want in the classroom, and 3 select a peer-buddy to check their work.
Student choice then becomes integrated seamlessly into the classroom routine. Select high-interest or functional learning activities. Kids are more motivated to learn when their instructional activities are linked to a topic of high interest Kern et al.Open education resources for academic writing.
Scholarly Voice Active and Passive Voice Scholarly Voice: Active and Passive Voice How Zombies Can Help You Avoid Passive Voice: A Minute Writing Exercise (blog post) Writing Center blog post.
The Hunt for Passive Voice (blog post). The correct paraphrasing is a topical issue for each writer. You do a research whatever piece you are working on, an essay or a blog post. It’s essential to support your original idea with statistics, scientific evidence and cold facts.
opinion, use I; when presenting company policy, use we. The best writers strive to achieve a style that is so clear that their messages cannot be misunderstood. One way to achieve a clear style is to minimize your use of the passive voice.
Passive voice produces a sentence in which the subject receives an action. In contrast, active voice produces a sentence in which the subject performs an action. Passive voice often produces unclear, wordy sentences, whereas active voice produces generally clearer, more concise sentences.
Photo: Wikimedia commons There are plenty of folks happy to tell you how to write better, just as any doctor will tell you to “eat right and exercise.” But changing your writing (or eating) habits only happens when you understand why you do what you do. I can help you with that.
Sometimes in academic writing it might be expedient to use the passive voice in order to avoid naming the 'doer' of an action so that the message of your text is less inflammatory; for example, read the following excerpt.