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Download image Eliminating the remainder of the U. A number of factors besides currency manipulation contribute to large U. On the part of other countries, these include unfair trade policies such as subsidies, trade barriers, and illegal appropriation of the intellectual property of U. Underinvestment in infrastructure is another critical factor.
Enacting policies to more effectively stimulate demand, including ending currency manipulation, rebuilding infrastructure, investing in clean and renewable technology industries, and eliminating unfair trade policies such as dumping, subsidies, and other unfair trade barriers are the most important steps needed to rebuild U.
New trade policies to respond to a dynamic and increasingly hostile international environment would move toward a restructuring of the world trading system so that it supports fair, balanced, and sustainable trade.
And the massive public investments needed to rebuild U. While policies that address the demand side of the equation are critical, supply-side assistance is also crucial; U.
The United States and its domestic manufacturers are operating in an environment where many other countries, including Germany, Japan, China, and Korea, operate comprehensive, supply-side programs to support their traded goods industries. The United States also needs an intermediary institution to provide working and investment capital to small and medium-sized manufacturers, which often lack access to U.
In addition, federal and state governments should work with schools, unions, and manufacturers to develop improved school-to-work training programs for non-college graduates, modeled on German and Danish labor force policies.
Finally, Japan has a Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry METIa powerful agency that works to ensure that foreign trade policy complements efforts to strengthen domestic manufacturing interests.
China through its five-year plans also provides critical strategic support to manufacturing efforts. Lessons on building strong support systems from the United States and other countries The major elements of a more effective national trade and industrial policy were outlined in the previous section.
A few examples will illustrate the scale of resources and commitments required to raise manufacturing support in the United States to a level on par with other countries. In the debates about the future of manufacturing, comparisons are frequently drawn between the decline of employment in agriculture and that in manufacturing.
However, agriculture has continued to be a major U. One of the primary reasons for rising output in agriculture is the steady growth of productivity output per acre.
Among the foremost reasons for the large and steady rise in agricultural productivity has been the key role played by the federal government in supporting research and its dissemination and diffusion.
Resources dedicated to this task include the U. The entity that comes closest to performing a similar role in manufacturing may be the relatively obscure National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST. Some 72 percent of USDA expenditures are for nutrition assistance the Women, Infants and Children programwhich only indirectly benefits agriculture.
However, manufacturing generated 10 times as much output as did agriculture in Thus, per dollar of economic output generated, the USDA spends more than times as much to support agriculture and related activities as NIST spends on manufacturing research and related activities.
Comparative research by Ezell and Atkinson has shown that U. As a share of GDP, Canada spends more than seven times as much as the United States on manufacturing extension and services programs, and Japan spends nearly 23 times more than the United States.
It supports more than 80 research units and 60 Fraunhofer Institutes and in had a staff of 20, more than half of whom are scientists and engineers. Almost 30 percent of its funding is provided by the German federal and state lander governments.
Fraunhofer The U.
GDP is approximately 4. Thus, both the German and Japanese examples suggest U. Expanding to a program of this scale would require time and resources to ensure that the needed capacities were developed and the resources well invested.
But expanding the MEP program would by no means be sufficient to restore U.
As a result, over the past decade Germany has maintained a large and growing trade surplus even relative to low-wage countries outside the eurozone, despite having some of the highest manufacturing compensation rates in the world BLS There are externalities that lead U. There are also market imperfections in capital markets that need to be addressed with new public institutions, as suggested above.Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice that occurs in practice and in policy within a racialized context..
In , the term was coined by Benjamin Chavis, who was the then executive director of the United Church of Christ (UCC) Commission for Racial Justice, in response to the dumping of hazardous PCB waste in a town in Warren County, North Carolina.
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On October 19, , the Trump Administration released a Presidential Memorandum directing federal agencies to address regulations that burden federal water projects in California and complete biological opinions under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; 16 U.S.C.
§§ et seq.) for specific federal water projects in the western United States. CENDI is an interagency cooperative organization composed of the scientific and technical information (STI) managers from the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Energy, Education, Defense, the Environmental Protection Agency, Health and Human Services, Interior, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Government Printing Office, the National Archives and Records.
environmental law: property rights in the united states november 16, a conference presented by the federalist society and its environmental law and property rights group moderator: mr.
james s. burling, pacific legal foundation. Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural torosgazete.com core environmental law regimes address environmental pollution.A related but distinct set of regulatory regimes, now strongly influenced by.